In 1919, American Major General James Harbord led a fact-finding mission to the Caucasus region, specifically Armenia, amid the geopolitical chaos following the collapse of the Ottoman and Russian empires. Harbord’s mission aimed to assess the situation in the region, which was marred by lawlessness, ethnic tensions, and geopolitical uncertainties. His report vividly described the precarious conditions, detailing incidents such as attacks on his mission by Kurds and Moslems, reflecting the region’s instability. Armenia, Georgia, and Azerbaijan had declared independence, but were entangled in conflicts, and Armenia, in particular, was reeling from the Armenian genocide. Harbord recommended a U.S. mandate over the region, but his proposal was rejected by the Senate. Subsequently, Armenia was invaded and eventually absorbed into the Soviet Union in 1922. Harbord’s mission and report provide a glimpse into the complex challenges faced by the region during a tumultuous period in history.